Self consolidating concrete history
Medieval lime mortars and concretes were non-hydraulic and were used for binding masonry, "hearting" (binding rubble masonry cores) and foundations.
Bartholomaeus Anglicus in his De proprietatibus rerum (1240) describes the making of mortar.
Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC.
It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, which is frequently used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder.They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble masonry houses, concrete floors, and underground waterproof cisterns.They kept the cisterns secret as these enabled the Nabataeans to thrive in the desert.The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example.Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon.